Investigator: Ian Stiell
Summary: The Ottawa Ankle Rules are simple guidelines developed to aid emergency physicians
in deciding when to use radiography for patients with injuries to the ankle.
The Ottawa Ankle Rules were developed and clinically tested to show that they led to a decrease
in the use of ankle radiography, waiting times, and costs without patient dissatisfaction or missed fractures.
Available in several formats here.
- Stiell I, Wells G, Laupacis A, Brison R, Verbeek R, Vandemheen K, Naylor D.
A multicentre trial to introduce clinical decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries.
British Medical Journal 1995; 311:594-597.
- Anis AH, Stiell IG, Steward DF, Laupacis A.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Ottawa Ankle Rules.
Annals of Emergency Medicine 1995; 26:422-428.
- Stiell IG, McKnight RD, Greenberg GH, McDowell I, Nair RC, Wells GA, Johns C, Worthington JR.
Implementation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules.
Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271:827-832.
- Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, Nair RC, McDowell I, Reardon M, Stewart JP, Maloney J.
Decision Rules for the Use of Radiography in Acute Ankle Injuries.
Journal of the American Medical Association 1993; 269:1127-1132.
- Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, Nair RC, McDowell I, Worthington JR.
A Study to Develop Clinical Decision Rules for the Use of Radiography in Acute Ankle Injuries.
Annals of Emergency Medicine 1992; 21:384-390.