Scientific Publications Database

Article Title: Comparison of Decision Tree and Long Short-Term Memory Approaches for Automated Foot Strike Detection in Lower Extremity Amputee Populations
Authors: Juneau, Pascale; Baddour, Natalie; Burger, Helena; Bavec, Andrej; Lemaire, Edward D.
Journal: SENSORS Volume 21 Issue 21
Date of Publication:2021
Foot strike detection is important when evaluating a person's gait characteristics. Accelerometer and gyroscope signals from smartphones have been used to train artificial intelligence (AI) models for automated foot strike detection in able-bodied and elderly populations. However, there is limited research on foot strike detection in lower limb amputees, who have a more variable and asymmetric gait. A novel method for automated foot strike detection in lower limb amputees was developed using raw accelerometer and gyroscope signals collected from a smartphone positioned at the posterior pelvis. Raw signals were used to train a decision tree model and long short-term memory (LSTM) model for automated foot strike detection. These models were developed using retrospective data (n = 72) collected with the TOHRC Walk Test app during a 6-min walk test (6MWT). An Android smartphone was placed on a posterior belt for each participant during the 6MWT to collect accelerometer and gyroscope signals at 50 Hz. The best model for foot strike identification was the LSTM with 100 hidden nodes in the LSTM layer, 50 hidden nodes in the dense layer, and a batch size of 64 (99.0% accuracy, 86.4% sensitivity, 99.4% specificity, and 83.7% precision). This research created a novel method for automated foot strike identification in lower extremity amputee populations that is equivalent to manual labelling and accessible for clinical use. Automated foot strike detection is required for stride analysis and to enable other AI applications, such as fall detection.