Edward Clark profile picture

Contact Information

Edward Clark, MD MSc FRCPC
613-798-5555 x82569
edclark@toh.ca



ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6767-1197

Publications

Selected Publications

  • Clark EG, McIntyre L, Watpool I, Kong JWY, Ramsay T, Sabri E, Canney M, Hundemer GL, Brown PA, Sood MM, Hiremath S. Intravenous albumin for the prevention of hemodynamic instability during sustained low-efficiency dialysis: a randomized controlled feasibility trial (The SAFER-SLED Study). Ann Intensive Care 2021; 11: 174.
  • Hryciw N, Joannidis M, Hiremath S, Callum J, Clark EG. Intravenous Albumin for Mitigating Hypotension and Augmenting Ultrafiltration during Kidney Replacement Therapy. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 2021; 16: 820-828.
  • Clark EG, Hiremath S, McIntyre L, Wald R, Hundemer GL, Joannidis M. Haemoperfusion should only be used for COVID-19 in the context of randomized trials. Nature reviews Nephrology 2020; 16: 697-699.
  • Douvris A, Zeid K, Hiremath S, Bagshaw SM, Wald R, Beaubien-Souligny W, Kong J, Ronco C, Clark EG. Mechanisms for hemodynamic instability related to renal replacement therapy: a narrative review. Intensive care medicine 2019; 45: 1333-1346.
  • Douvris A, Malhi G, Hiremath S, McIntyre L, Silver SA, Bagshaw SM, Wald R, Ronco C, Sikora L, Weber C, Clark EG. Interventions to prevent hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients: a systematic review. Critical care 2018; 22: 41.


All Other Publications

1. Yan M, Puyat JH, Shulha HP, Clark EG, Levin A, Johnston JC. Risk of tuberculosis associated with chronic kidney disease: a population-based analysis. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2021.
2. McCudden C, Clark EG, Akbari A, Kong J, Kanji S, Hiremath S. N-Acetylcysteine Interference With Creatinine Measurement: An In Vitro Analysis. Kidney Int Rep 2021; 6: 1973-1976.
3. Magner K, Clark E, Hiremath S. Letter to the editor regarding "Accelerated versus standard initiation of renal replacement therapy for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCT studies". Critical care 2021; 25: 96.
4. Hundemer GL, Tangri N, Sood MM, Clark EG, Canney M, Edwards C, White CA, Oliver MJ, Ramsay T, Akbari A. The Effect of Age on Performance of the Kidney Failure Risk Equation in Advanced CKD. Kidney Int Rep 2021; 6: 2993-3001.
5. Huang JW, Lahey B, Clarkin OJ, Kong J, Clark E, Kanji S, McCudden C, Akbari A, B JWC, Shabana W, Hiremath S. A Systematic Review of the Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Serum Creatinine and Cystatin C Measurements. Kidney Int Rep 2021; 6: 396-403.
6. Hryciw N, Joannidis M, Hiremath S, Callum J, Clark EG. Intravenous Albumin for Mitigating Hypotension and Augmenting Ultrafiltration during Kidney Replacement Therapy. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 2021; 16: 820-828.
7. Harper KC, Salameh JP, Akhlaq N, McInnes MDF, Ivankovic V, Beydoun MH, Clark EG, Zeng W, Blew BDM, Burns KD, Sood MM, Bugeja A. The impact of measuring split kidney function on post-donation kidney function: A retrospective cohort study. PLoS One 2021; 16: e0253609.
8. Douvris A, Burger D, Rodriguez RA, Clark EG, Vinas J, Lalu MM, Shorr R, Burns KD. MicroRNA in Human Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review Protocol. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2021; 8: 20543581211009999.
9. Clark EG, McIntyre L, Watpool I, Kong JWY, Ramsay T, Sabri E, Canney M, Hundemer GL, Brown PA, Sood MM, Hiremath S. Intravenous albumin for the prevention of hemodynamic instability during sustained low-efficiency dialysis: a randomized controlled feasibility trial (The SAFER-SLED Study). Ann Intensive Care 2021; 11: 174.
10. Bugeja A, Shams I, Harris S, Clark EG, Burns KD, Sood MM, Akbari A. Cannabis and Cigarette Use Before and After Living Kidney Donation. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2021; 8: 2054358121997243.
11. Bugeja A, Hae R, Rajda E, Clark EG, Akbari A, Fairhead T, Arianne Buchan C. A living donor kidney transplant recipient with mycobacterium senegalense bacteremia: A case report. Transpl Infect Dis 2021: e13596.
12. Beaubien-Souligny W, Yang Y, Burns KEA, Friedrich JO, Meraz-Munoz A, Clark EG, Adhikari NK, Bagshaw SM, Wald R. Intra-dialytic hypotension following the transition from continuous to intermittent renal replacement therapy. Ann Intensive Care 2021; 11: 96.
13. Alabbas A, Kirpalani A, Morgan C, Mammen C, Licht C, Phan V, Wade A, Harvey E, Zappitelli M, Clark EG, Hiremath S, Soroka SD, Wald R, Weir MA, Chanchlani R, Lemaire M. Canadian Association of Paediatric Nephrologists COVID-19 Rapid Response: Guidelines for Management of Acute Kidney Injury in Children. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2021; 8: 2054358121990135.
14. Akbari A, Kunkel E, Bota SE, Harel Z, Le Gal G, Cox C, Hundemer GL, Canney M, Clark E, Massicotte-Azarniouch D, Eddeen AB, Knoll G, Sood MM. Proteinuria and venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a population-based cohort study. Clin Kidney J 2021; 14: 2101-2107.
15. Sriperumbuduri S, Clark E, Biyani M, Ruzicka M. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis on Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. Kidney Int Rep 2020; 5: 1833-1835.
16. Silver SA, Clark EG, Hiremath S. Misleading Numbers: Is the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury with COVID-19 Truly This Low? American journal of nephrology 2020; 51: 574-575.
17. Sheikh R, Hiremath S, Clark EG, Akbari A, McCudden C, Brown PA. Bias in the Determination of Dialysate Sodium Concentration Set According to Conductivity Relative to Indirect Ion-Selective Measurement Techniques. Kidney Int Rep 2020; 5: 931-934.
18. Schachter ME, Saunders MJ, Akbari A, Caryk JM, Bugeja A, Clark EG, Tennankore KK, Martinusen DJ. Technique Survival and Determinants of Technique Failure in In-Center Nocturnal Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Observational Study. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2020; 7: 2054358120975305.
19. Oloko A, Talreja H, Davis A, McCormick B, Clark E, Akbari A, Kong J, Hiremath S. Does Iodinated Contrast Affect Residual Renal Function in Dialysis Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nephron 2020; 144: 176-184.
20. Hundemer GL, Tangri N, Sood MM, Ramsay T, Bugeja A, Brown PA, Clark EG, Biyani M, White CA, Akbari A. Performance of the Kidney Failure Risk Equation by Disease Etiology in Advanced CKD. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 2020; 15: 1424-1432.
21. Hiremath S, Kong J, Clark EG. Contrast and acute kidney injury: what is left to enhance? Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2020.
22. Hiremath S, Clark EG. Albuminuria as a risk factor for acute kidney injury: what is the evidence? Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2020; 35: 2026-2029.
23. Hill K, Sucha E, Rhodes E, Carrier M, Garg AX, Harel Z, Hundemer GL, Clark EG, Knoll G, McArthur E, Sood MM. Risk of Hospitalization With Hemorrhage Among Older Adults Taking Clarithromycin vs Azithromycin and Direct Oral Anticoagulants. JAMA Intern Med 2020; 180: 1052-1060.
24. Clark EG, Knoll G. More than ever, efficient evaluation of potential living kidney donors is needed. Kidney international 2020; 98: 1395-1397.
25. Clark EG, Hiremath S, Soroka SD, Wald R, Weir MA. CSN COVID-19 Rapid Review Program: Management of Acute Kidney Injury. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2020; 7: 2054358120941679.
26. Clark EG, Hiremath S, McIntyre L, Wald R, Hundemer GL, Joannidis M. Haemoperfusion should only be used for COVID-19 in the context of randomized trials. Nature reviews Nephrology 2020; 16: 697-699.
27. Wang C, Hiremath S, Sikora L, Sood MM, Kong J, Clark E. Outpatient kidney recovery after acute kidney injury requiring dialysis: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 2019; 8: 214.
28. Sriperumbuduri S, Clark E, Hiremath S. New Insights Into Mechanisms of Acute Kidney Injury in Heart Disease. The Canadian journal of cardiology 2019; 35: 1158-1169.
29. Samaha D, Clark EG. Common errors in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion. Seminars in dialysis 2019; 32: 411-416.
30. Noel JA, Bota SE, Petrcich W, Garg AX, Carrero JJ, Harel Z, Tangri N, Clark EG, Komenda P, Sood MM. Risk of Hospitalization for Serious Adverse Gastrointestinal Events Associated With Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Use in Patients of Advanced Age. JAMA Intern Med 2019; 179: 1025-1033.
31. Hae R, Samaha D, Brown PA, McQuillan R, Hiremath S, Clark EG. A Survey of Training for Temporary Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion During Nephrology Fellowship in Canada: An Update. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2019; 6: 2054358119875989.
32. Douvris A, Zeid K, Hiremath S, Bagshaw SM, Wald R, Beaubien-Souligny W, Kong J, Ronco C, Clark EG. Mechanisms for hemodynamic instability related to renal replacement therapy: a narrative review. Intensive care medicine 2019; 45: 1333-1346.
33. Clark EG, McIntyre L, Ramsay T, Tinmouth A, Knoll G, Brown PA, Watpool I, Porteous R, Montroy K, Harris S, Kong J, Hiremath S. Saline versus albumin fluid for extracorporeal removal with slow low-efficiency dialysis (SAFER-SLED): study protocol for a pilot trial. Pilot Feasibility Stud 2019; 5: 72.
34. Clark EG, Hiremath S, Sood MM, Wald R, Garg AX, Silver SA, van Walraven C. WITHDRAWN: Death and Recovery of Kidney Function Among Patients Continued on Dialysis After Discharge From Hospital Stays Complicated by Acute Kidney Injury: A Cohort Study. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2019.
35. Clark EG, Hiremath S. INCEPTION: is a larger trial to evaluate intraoperative renal replacement therapy in liver transplant patients more than just a dream? Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie 2019; 66: 1137-1146.
36. Bugeja A, Harris S, Ernst J, Burns KD, Knoll G, Clark EG. Changes in Body Weight Before and After Kidney Donation. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2019; 6: 2054358119847203.
37. Brown PA, Magner PO, Hiremath S, Clark EG. Death due to delirium: a case of a self-cut hemodialysis dialysis catheter - a case report. BMC nephrology 2019; 20: 390.
38. Abou Arkoub R, Xiao CW, Claman P, Clark EG. Acute Kidney Injury Due to Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2019; 73: 416-420.
39. Wang C, Samaha D, Hiremath S, Sikora L, Sood MM, Kanji S, Clark EG. Outcomes after toxic alcohol poisoning: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 2018; 7: 250.
40. Massicotte-Azarniouch D, Barbour S, Blanco P, Clark EG. Primary membranous nephropathy presenting with crescentic glomerulonephritis 25 years after initial presentation: A case report. Clinical nephrology 2018; 90: 291-295.
41. Makedonov I, Clark EG, Kanchi P, Brown PA. Adult nephrotic syndrome complicated by spontaneous pneumococcal peritonitis: A case report. Clinical nephrology 2018; 90: 76-78.
42. Jegatheswaran J, Torres C, Clark E. Uremic cranial neuropathy. Kidney international 2018; 93: 1021.
43. Douvris A, Zeid K, Hiremath S, Brown PA, Sood MM, Abou Arkoub R, Malhi G, Clark EG. Safety Lapses Prior to Initiation of Hemodialysis for Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients: A Patient Safety Initiative. J Clin Med 2018; 7.
44. Douvris A, Malhi G, Hiremath S, McIntyre L, Silver SA, Bagshaw SM, Wald R, Ronco C, Sikora L, Weber C, Clark EG. Interventions to prevent hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients: a systematic review. Critical care 2018; 22: 41.
45. de Chickera SN, Bota SE, Kuwornu JP, Wijeysundera HC, Molnar AO, Lam NN, Silver SA, Clark EG, Sood MM. Albuminuria, Reduced Kidney Function, and the Risk of ST - and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. J Am Heart Assoc 2018; 7: e009995.
46. de Chickera S, Akbari A, Levin A, Tang M, Brown P, Djurdev O, Biyani M, Clark EG, Sood MM. The Risk of Adverse Events in Patients With Polycystic Kidney Disease With Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2018; 5: 2054358118774537.
47. Bugeja A, Clark EG, Sood MM, Ali SN. As in Real Estate, Location Is What Matters: A Case Report of Transplant Ureteral Obstruction Due to an Inguinal Hernia. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2018; 5: 2054358117753620.
48. Bugeja A, Clark EG. A Clinical Decision Support System Can Help Facilitate Living Kidney Donor Assessments. Transplantation 2018; 102: 1601-1602.
49. Bugeja A, Blanco P, Clark EG, Sood MM. Sickle cell disease: a case report of renal amyloidosis. BMC nephrology 2018; 19: 256.
50. Brown PA, Hiremath S, Clark EG, Kwok ESH, McCudden C, Akbari A. Implementation and evaluation of structured nephrology morbidity and mortality conferences: a quality education report. Int Urol Nephrol 2018; 50: 929-938.
51. Abou-Arkoub R, Worrall JC, Clark EG. Emergency Department Patients With Acute Kidney Injury: Appropriately Discharged but Inadequately Followed-Up? Acad Emerg Med 2018; 25: 815-818.
52. Talreja H, Ryan SE, Graham J, Sood MM, Hadziomerovic A, Clark E, Hiremath S. Endoluminal dilatation for embedded hemodialysis catheters: A case-control study of factors associated with embedding and clinical outcomes. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0174061.
53. Mazarova A, Hiremath S, Sood MM, Clark EG, Brown PA, Bugeja AL, England GL, Zimmerman D. Hemodialysis Access Choice: Impact of Health Literacy. Health Lit Res Pract 2017; 1: e136-e144.
54. Massicotte-Azarniouch D, O'Sullivan JP, Clark EG. Transient mediastinal mass from fluid overload. Hemodialysis international International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis 2017; 21: E22-E24.
55. Massicotte-Azarniouch D, Amin SO, Hesketh C, Clark EG. Renal Replacement Therapy: Timing of Initiation and Intradialytic Hypotension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017; 196: 102-104.
56. Douvris A, Hiremath S, McIntyre L, Sikora L, Weber C, Clark EG. Interventions to prevent hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 2017; 6: 113.
57. Dobrowolski C, Clark EG, Sood MM. Venous thromboembolism in chronic kidney disease: epidemiology, the role of proteinuria, CKD severity and therapeutics. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis 2017; 43: 241-247.
58. Bugeja A, Clark EG. Living kidney donation. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne 2017; 189: E1041.
59. Villeneuve PM, Clark EG, Sikora L, Sood MM, Bagshaw SM. Health-related quality-of-life among survivors of acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. Intensive care medicine 2016; 42: 137-146.
60. Romanowski K, Clark EG, Levin A, Cook VJ, Johnston JC. Tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease: an emerging global syndemic. Kidney international 2016; 90: 34-40.
61. Miller LM, MacRae JM, Kiaii M, Clark E, Dipchand C, Kappel J, Lok C, Luscombe R, Moist L, Oliver M, Pike P, Hiremath S, Canadian Society of Nephrology Vascular Access Work G. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter Noninfectious Complications. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016; 3: 2054358116669130.
62. Miller LM, Clark E, Dipchand C, Hiremath S, Kappel J, Kiaii M, Lok C, Luscombe R, Moist L, Oliver M, MacRae J, Canadian Society of Nephrology Vascular Access Work G. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter-Related Infections. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016; 3: 2054358116669129.
63. MacRae JM, Oliver M, Clark E, Dipchand C, Hiremath S, Kappel J, Kiaii M, Lok C, Luscombe R, Miller LM, Moist L, Canadian Society of Nephrology Vascular Access Work G. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016; 3: 2054358116669125.
64. MacRae JM, Dipchand C, Oliver M, Moist L, Yilmaz S, Lok C, Leung K, Clark E, Hiremath S, Kappel J, Kiaii M, Luscombe R, Miller LM, Canadian Society of Nephrology Vascular Access Work G. Arteriovenous Access: Infection, Neuropathy, and Other Complications. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016; 3: 2054358116669127.
65. MacRae JM, Dipchand C, Oliver M, Moist L, Lok C, Clark E, Hiremath S, Kappel J, Kiaii M, Luscombe R, Miller LM, Canadian Society of Nephrology Vascular Access Work G. Arteriovenous Access Failure, Stenosis, and Thrombosis. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016; 3: 2054358116669126.
66. Clark EG, Rodger MA, Ramsay TO, Knoll GA. Effectiveness of a computerized decision support system for anticoagulation management in hemodialysis patients: A before-after study. Hemodialysis international International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis 2016; 20: 530-536.
67. Clark EG, Hiremath S. Progressively Earlier Initiation of Renal Replacement Therapy for Acute Kidney Injury Is Unwarranted and Potentially Harmful. Blood purification 2016; 41: 159-165.
68. Clark EG, Akbari A, Hiebert B, Hiremath S, Komenda P, Lok CE, Moist LM, Schachter ME, Tangri N, Sood MM. Geographic and facility variation in initial use of non-tunneled catheters for incident maintenance hemodialysis patients. BMC nephrology 2016; 17: 20.
69. Clark E, Kumar A, Langote A, Lapinsky S, Dodek P, Kramer A, Wood G, Bagshaw SM, Wood K, Gurka D, Sood MM, Cooperative Antimicrobial Therapy of Septic Shock Database Research G. Septic shock in chronic dialysis patients: clinical characteristics, antimicrobial therapy and mortality. Intensive care medicine 2016; 42: 222-232.
70. Clark E, Kappel J, MacRae J, Dipchand C, Hiremath S, Kiaii M, Lok C, Moist L, Oliver M, Miller LM, Canadian Society of Nephrology Vascular Access Work G. Practical Aspects of Nontunneled and Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016; 3: 2054358116669128.
71. Clark E, Barsuk JH, Karpinski J, McQuillan R. Achieving Procedural Competence during Nephrology Fellowship Training: Current Requirements and Educational Research. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 2016; 11: 2244-2249.
72. Wald R, Adhikari NK, Smith OM, Weir MA, Pope K, Cohen A, Thorpe K, McIntyre L, Lamontagne F, Soth M, Herridge M, Lapinsky S, Clark E, Garg AX, Hiremath S, Klein D, Mazer CD, Richardson RM, Wilcox ME, Friedrich JO, Burns KE, Bagshaw SM, Canadian Critical Care Trials G. Comparison of standard and accelerated initiation of renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury. Kidney international 2015; 88: 897-904.
73. McQuillan RF, Clark E, Zahirieh A, Cohen ER, Paparello JJ, Wayne DB, Barsuk JH. Performance of Temporary Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion by Nephrology Fellows and Attending Nephrologists. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 2015; 10: 1767-1772.
74. Clark EG, Zimmerman DL. Dialysate Calcium in Limbo: How Low Can You Go? American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2015; 66: 558-560.
75. Clark EG, Knoll G, Bugeja A, Burns KD, Scofield RH. Lupus after kidney donation to an affected male relative. Transplantation 2015; 99: e27-28.
76. Clark EG, Burns KD. Pincer nails following arteriovenous fistula creation. Kidney international 2015; 88: 918.
77. Clark EG, Bagshaw SM. Unnecessary renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury is harmful for renal recovery. Seminars in dialysis 2015; 28: 6-11.
78. Clark EG, Paparello JJ, Wayne DB, Edwards C, Hoar S, McQuillan R, Schachter ME, Barsuk JH. Use of a national continuing medical education meeting to provide simulation-based training in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion skills: a pre-test post-test study. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2014; 1: 25.
79. Clark EG, Barsuk JH. Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances. Kidney international 2014; 86: 888-895.
80. Clark E, Molnar AO, Joannes-Boyau O, Honore PM, Sikora L, Bagshaw SM. High-volume hemofiltration for septic acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical care 2014; 18: R7.
81. Clark E, Edwards C. In reply to 'training can be cost-effective in reducing morbidity associated with temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion'. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2014; 63: 346-347.
82. Clark E, Bagshaw SM. Long-term risk of sepsis among survivors of acute kidney injury. Critical care 2014; 18: 103.
83. Clark EG, Schachter ME, Palumbo A, Knoll G, Edwards C. Temporary hemodialysis catheter placement by nephrology fellows: implications for nephrology training. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2013; 62: 474-480.
84. Breau RH, Clark E, Bruner B, Cervini P, Atwell T, Knoll G, Leibovich BC. A simple method to estimate renal volume from computed tomography. Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 2013; 7: 189-192.
85. Hwang YJ, Shariff SZ, Gandhi S, Wald R, Clark E, Fleet JL, Garg AX. Validity of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code for acute kidney injury in elderly patients at presentation to the emergency department and at hospital admission. BMJ open 2012; 2.
86. Clark E, Wald R, Walsh M, Bagshaw SM, Canadian Acute Kidney Injury I. Timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury: a survey of nephrologists and intensivists in Canada. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2012; 27: 2761-2767.
87. Clark E, Wald R, Levin A, Bouchard J, Adhikari NK, Hladunewich M, Richardson RM, James MT, Walsh MW, House AA, Moist L, Stollery DE, Burns KE, Friedrich JO, Barton J, Lafrance JP, Pannu N, Bagshaw SM, Canadian Acute Kidney Injury I. Timing the initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury in Canadian intensive care units: a multicentre observational study. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie 2012; 59: 861-870.